Thursday, March 25, 2010

Origin eunuch

Eunuchs, also known as eunuchs, the ancient Chinese have been castrated after the loss of sexuality and specifically for the emperor, monarch and his family servitude officials. Also known as "Temple" and "castration (castrate)" and "castrated officers" and "Huanzhe" and the "officers" and "within the officers" and "inside the Hill", "chamberlain", "inside the prison" and so on. Gaozong, the change, "Dian province" as "in Yu Fu" to act as a eunuch, "eunuch", "less supervision." After the eunuch is also known as "eunuchs."


Qin Dynasty eunuch system originated in the pre-Qin era, "The Book of Songs", "Zhou", "The Book of Rites" have records on the eunuchs. Zhou Dynasty and the vassal state most set eunuchs. Qin Eunuch, "lao Ai" by the Queen Mother darling, a powerful distinguished, called the "long letter Hou." Eunuchs who generally act as a lowly status. Its origin or by the imposition of a criminal act as Gong Xing, or from the civil population of young children were selected. Qin and Han dynasties, eunuch system more detailed preparation, eunuchs, as a special political forces, for many a major impact on political dynasties.

Qin and Han Dynasty emperor Tongyiliuguo, the eunuch by the "less government" jurisdiction. Western Han dynasty, the Han emperor, "Liu Pang" Given the Qin Wang lessons, then filled with the scribes "in Attendants" in order to suppress eunuch power. After the Yuan Dynasty emperors, eunuchs forces to re-germination. The Eastern Han Dynasty, serving the emperor "in Attendants" specialized filled by eunuchs. They convey the Dahir, charge of the instruments, audio-visual about the emperor. That time, the wife's family power, are often made use of the emperor to contain eunuch wife's family, often resulting in the dictatorship of the situation eunuch group.

Tang and Song dynasties, the Tang Dynasty, eunuch from "chamberlain province", "tuck-ting Office," "Gong Wei Bureau", "Xi Guan Bureau", "servant within the bureau," "within the government council". In charge of intrauterine books, guards, sick funeral, warehouse supplies and so on. The official said the Secretary for the "order" or "shing." Tang Taizong, the more stringent restrictions on the eunuchs to provide the highest ranking for the eunuch chamberlain Province Mishina, there are restrictions on the amount. Taizong's death, the system gradually slacken. In the case, the eunuch the total number of 3000, was awarded more than seven items up to thousands of people, Xuanzong, the eunuchs are too many, only four or five thousand or more items were on. Grant Mishina left (right) the rank of supervisor who goalkeeper a lot of people. Shi Rebellion, the eunuch power expansion, and some even champion Jazz, ranked Sangong. Some eunuchs also encroach on military power. Su-tsung, the established concept of the military capacity to use it, specifically to serve as eunuchs in the power holders, as the marshals to monitor the highest military expedition. Dezon North Korea from the beginning, eunuch mastered the "God strategy" army, "the emperor" and military Jinbing of military power. Military "Hujun," Lieutenant, "in Hu-jun" and other positions held by eunuchs. A result of military and political power was dominated by eunuchs groups, not only for its next Wenwubaiguan, even the emperor's waste legislation is also determined by them. In the "Kenso" to "Akimune" period of nine emperors ascended the throne there were seven from the eunuch of the pro-lap, two were killed by them. The dictatorship of a eunuch, the late Tang one of the major ills of society. Song is also located the chamberlain province, by the eunuchs in charge. However, the phenomenon of the Song Dynasty eunuch interference in domestic affairs than authoritarian wife's family grave.

Ming and Qing Dynasties, "Chu Yuan-chang," the management of the eunuchs a more stringent requirement shall not eunuchs literacy and decreasing their rank, to prohibit their chief foreign-chen of the civil and military titles, and hanging Tiepai on the palace, on the alert expressly allowed interference in domestic affairs. From the Yongle dynasty began the gradual re-eunuch. Emperor trusted eunuchs are often sent cruiser as jianjun. Yongle eighteen years (1420), based Dongchang by the eunuchs in charge engaged in spy activities, everything go directly to the report of the emperor. Emperor Xuanzong, the change shall not literate ancestral system of eunuchs in the palace is located inside the church books. A professor of school officials little eunuchs literacy. Chenghua thirteen years (1477) outside the factory in the East, West to establish a separate plant, in order to eunuch admiral served to strengthen the rule of spies. In addition, the eunuchs serving institutional expansion of the court in the set up "Eli", "within the officers" and "Queen", "Division is based," "Royal Horse" and 12 supervisors. "Xi salary", "three hundred", "Po-notes", "mixed court", etc. 4 Division and the "soldiers battle", "Silver as" other eight Board, referred to as 24 Yamen, each with a full-time palm-prints eunuchs. Increase in the number eunuchs, to the late Ming as many as tens of thousands of the congregation. Hidemune when the eunuch Wang Zhen recruited some of the bureaucratic power as the gang members formed Yan Dang, open the dictatorship of the Ming Dynasty eunuch prelude. Since then, the eunuchs of the disaster after another. Chenghua-year period, "Wang Zhi", Takemune period of "Liu Jin," Xizong period of "Wei Zhongxian", etc. are all too powerful government and opposition, forces the right of eminent Huan. Their high-handedness, intolerance, extortion and repeated Hing prison, adding to the political corruption of the Ming Dynasty, bringing endless catastrophe to the people.

Given the fierceness of the Ming Dynasty eunuch harm, the Qing rulers took some restrictions. Qing states: eunuch go Imperial Household Department jurisdiction, specifically by "Keiji room" management. "Keiji rooms" also known as the supervisor to do at the palace, located mains, Fu Zongguan other posts. Eunuchs for the Kangxi Explorer 5 when the goods into four products when Yongzheng. Reduction of the Ming Dynasty, "24 Yamen" to "13 Yamen," and greatly reduces the number of people. Junji Set eunuch thousand people, Qianlong to 3000 until the late Qing Dynasty has not yet passed this figure. Eunuchs promotion demotion decision by the Imperial Household Department Yorinori board of civil service. Eunuch the law, after the Imperial Household Department to acquire a memorial. In particular cut-off of its interference in domestic affairs. Emperor Shun Zhi Fang, "the emperor" the old system, cast iron monument stand "pay-tai," Temple, expressly provide that a wrongful act, are lynching. Implementation of these measures get better. Although in the late Qing Dynasty Empress Dowager Cixi's favorite eunuch had "Andhi", "Li Lien-ying" and other cases of repeat offenders banned, courtiers look askance at the end does not appear the Han, Tang and Ming eunuch the exclusive right to the phenomenon.

A revolution overthrew the feudal Qing Dynasty rule, continued over several thousand years of feudal society eunuch system.

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